1. Newton’s laws predict the motion of most objects. As a basis for understanding this

concept:

a. Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average

speed.

b. Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an

object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton’s first law).

c. Students know how to apply the law FÊ=Ê ma to solve one-dimensional motion

problems that involve constant forces (Newton’s second law).

d. Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second

object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction

(Newton’s third law).

e. Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the

effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.

1. Newton’s laws predict the motion of most objects. As a basis for understanding this

concept:

a. Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average

speed.

b. Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an

object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton’s first law).

c. Students know how to apply the law FÊ=Ê ma to solve one-dimensional motion

problems that involve constant forces (Newton’s second law).

d. Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second

object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction

(Newton’s third law).

e. Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the

effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.

f. Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its

motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth’s gravitational

force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).

g. Students know circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed

toward the center of the circle.

h.* Students know Newton’s laws are not exact but provide very good approximations

unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that

quantum effects are important.

i.* Students know how to solve two-dimensional trajectory problems.

j.* Students know how to resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components and

calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components.

k.* Students know how to solve two-dimensional problems involving balanced forces

(statics).

l.* Students know how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for

centripetal acceleration in the following form: aÊ=Êv2/r.

m.* Students know how to solve problems involving the forces between two electric

charges at a distance (Coulomb’s law) or the forces between two masses at a

distance (universal gravitation).

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